Quantum computation and communication are important branches of quantum information science. However, noise in realistic quantum devices fundamentally limits the utility of these quantum technologies. A conventional approach towards large-scale and fault-tolerant quantum information processing is to use multi-qubit quantum error correction (QEC), that is, to encode a logical quantum bit (or a logical qubit) redundantly over many physical qubits such that the redundancy can be used to detect errors. The required resource overhead associated with the use of conventional multi-qubit QEC schemes, however, is too high for these schemes to be realized at scale with currently available quantum devices. Recently, bosonic (or continuous-variable) quantum error correction has risen as a promising hardware-efficient alternative to multi-qubit QEC schemes.
In this thesis, I provide an overview of bosonic QEC and present my contributions to the field. Specifically, I present the benchmark and optimization results of various single-mode bosonic codes against practically relevant excitation loss errors. I also demonstrate that fault-tolerant bosonic QEC is possible by concatenating a single-mode bosonic code with a multi-qubit error-correcting code. Moreover, I discuss the fundamental aspects of bosonic QEC using the framework of quantum communication theory. In particular, I present improved bounds of important communication-theoretic quantities such as the quantum capacity of bosonic Gaussian channels. Furthermore, I provide explicit bosonic error correction schemes that nearly achieve the fundamental performance limit set by the quantum capacity. I conclude the thesis with discussions on the importance of non-Gaussian resources for continuous-variable quantum information processing.